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Caligula (37-41 AD)

Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus ( 31 August 12 – 24 January 41), more commonly known by his cognomen Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor, reigning from 16 March 37 until his assassination on 24 January 41. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

Caligula's father, Germanicus, the adopted son of emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome's most beloved public figures. The young Gaius earned his nickname Caligula (the diminutive form of caliga) meaning "little [soldier's] boot", while accompanying his father on military campaigns in Germania. When Germanicus died in Antioch in 19, his mother Agrippina the Elder returned to Rome with her six children, where she became entangled in an increasingly bitter feud with Tiberius. This conflict eventually led to the destruction of her family, with Caligula as the sole male survivor. Unscathed by the deadly intrigues, and seemingly unmoved by the fate of his closest relatives, Caligula accepted the invitation to accompany the emperor on the island of Capri in 31, where Tiberius himself had withdrawn in 26. At the death of Tiberius, on 16 March 37, Caligula succeeded his adoptive grandfather.

There are few surviving sources on Caligula's reign, and although he is described as a noble and moderate ruler during the first two years of his rule, after this the sources focus upon his cruelty, extravagance, and sexual perversity, presenting him as an insane tyrant. While the reliability of these sources has been difficult to assess, what is known is that during his brief reign, Caligula worked to increase the authority of the princeps, possibly contemplating the introduction of an authoritarian system of an eastern type. He directed much of his attention to ambitious construction projects, notoriously luxurious dwellings for himself, but also two new aqueducts for the city of Rome (Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus). However, these are primarily associated with his successor Claudius, who brought these projects to completion. Caligula also annexed Mauretania.

On 24 January 41, Caligula was assassinated as the result of a conspiracy involving officers of the Praetorian Guard as well as members of the Roman Senate and of the imperial court. The conspirators' attempt to use the opportunity to restore the Roman Republic was thwarted, as the same day the Praetorian Guard declared Caligula's uncle Claudius emperor in his place.

 

Catalogue:

RIC # Picture Description Rarity
Mint of Lugdunum (Lyons)
Dated gold and silver
AV aureus - RIC I, 1 GAIUS (CALIGULA), with DIVUS AUGUSTUS. 37-41 AD. AV Aureus (18mm, 7.68 gm, 6h) Lugdunum (Lyons) mint. Struck 37-38 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head of Gaius right / Radiate head of Divus Augustus right; star to left and right. RIC I 1; BMCRE 1; Cohen 10; Calicó 336. (Image courtesy CNG) R2
AR denarius - RIC I, 2 GAIUS CALIGULA & DIVUS AUGUSTUS. 37-41 AD. AR Denarius (3.72 gm). Lugdunum mint. Struck 37-38 AD. C. CAESAR. AVG. GERM. P. M. TR. POT. COS, laureate head of Caligula right / DIVVS. AVG PATER. PATRIAE., radiate head of Divus Augustus right. RIC I 2; BMCRE 4; RSC 11. (Image courtesy CNG) R
AV aureus - RIC I, 3 No photo Same as the next coin (RIC 4) but in gold R4
AR denarius - RIC I, 4 GAIUS (CALIGULA), with DIVUS AUGUSTUS. 37-41 AD. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.62 gm). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 37 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, bare head of Gaius right / Radiate head of Divus Augustus right. RIC I 4; RSC 5. (Image courtesy CNG) R4
AV quinarius  - RIC I, 5 No photo GAIUS (CALIGULA) 37-41 AD. AV quinarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 37 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS, bare head of Gaius right / PM TR - POT COS, Victory, draped, seated on globe holding wreath in both hands. BMC 6. R3
AR denarius - RIC I, 6 No photo As RIC 1 above, but with C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT on obverse. Cohen 9 R5
AV aureus - RIC I, 7 No photo Same as the coin below (RIC 8) but in gold R2
AR denarius - RIC I, 8 GAIUS (CALIGULA), with AGRIPPINA SENIOR. 37-41 AD. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.66 gm). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 37 AD. C. CAESAR. AVG. GERM. P. M. TR. POT., bare head right / AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM, draped bust of Agrippina right. RIC I 8; BMCRE 8; RSC 4. (Image courtesy CNG) R
AV aureus - RIC I, 9 No photo Same as the coin below (RIC 10) but in gold R2
AR denarius - RIC I, 10 GAIUS (CALIGULA), with DIVUS AUGUSTUS. 37-41 AD. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.63 gm). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 37-38 AD. Bare head of Gaius right / Radiate head of Divus Augustus right. RIC I 10; RSC 3. (Image courtesy CNG) R2
AV aureus - RIC I, 11 GAIUS (CALIGULA), with GERMANICUS. 37-41 AD. AV Aureus (7.77). Rome mint. Struck 37-38 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, laureate head of Gaius (Caligula) right / GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM, bare head of Germanicus right. RIC 11; BMCRE 11; BN 14; Calicó 322. (Image courtesy Numismatik Lanz München) R2
AR denarius - RIC I, 12 GAIUS CALIGULA and GERMANICUS. 37-41 AD. AR Denarius (3.67 gm). Struck 37 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, bare head of Caligula right / GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM, bare head of Germanicus right. RIC I 12; BMCRE 12; BN 15; Szaivert 1-3 corr.; RSC 4.(Image courtesy CNG) R2
AV aureus - RIC I, - GAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD. Aureus, Lugdunum circa 37-38, AV 7.66 g. C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT Laureate head r. / S P Q R / P P / OB C S within oak-wreath. G. Riccio, Ripostiglio di monete d’oro dell’alto impero, PNS 1869, p. 149, 21 (this coin?). Calicó 328 (this coin). Giard Lyon 173. C 18. BMC p. 148, note *. CBN –. RIC –, cf. 19 (denarius). RIC (first edition) 4. (Image courtesy Numismatica Ars Classica) ?
Mint of Rome
(i) Dated silver and gold
AV aureus - RIC I, 13 GAIUS CALIGULA. Aureus, minted 37-38 AD, AV 7.76 g. C CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR POT Laureate head of Gaius r. Rev. AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM Draped bust of Agrippina r. RIC 13. BMC 14. C 1. CBN 22. (Image courtesy CNG) R2
AR denarius - RIC I, 14 GAIUS (CALIGULA), with AGRIPPINA SENIOR. 37-41 AD. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.88 gm, 4h). Rome mint. Struck 37-38 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, laureate head of Gaius (Caligula) right / AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM, draped bust of Agrippina right. RIC I 14; Trillmich type 1/2; BMCRE 15; RSC 2. (Image courtesy CNG) R
AV aureus - RIC I, 15 GAIUS (CALIGULA), Aureus 37-38, 7.73 g. C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT Bare head of Gaius r. / DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE Radiate head of Augustus r. RIC 15. BMC 16. C 1. CBN 19. Vagi 310. Calicó 332 (this coin). (Image courtesy Numismatica Ars Classica) R2
AR denarius - RIC I, 16 Gaius (Caligula), with Divus Augustus. AD 37-41. AR Denarius (3.68 g, 5h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. 2nd emission, AD 37-38. C • CAESAR • AVG • GERM • P • M • TR • POT, laureate head of Gaius (Caligula) right / DIVVS • AVG • PATER • PATRIAE •, radiate head of Divus Augustus right. RIC I 16; Lyon 167; RSC 2; BMCRE 17; BN 21. (Image courtesy CNG) R2
AV aureus - RIC I, 17 GAIUS (CALIGULA), with GERMANICUS. 37-41 AD. AV Aureus (7.69 g, 5h). Rome mint. Struck 37-38 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, laureate head of Gaius (Caligula) right / GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM, bare head of Germanicus right. RIC I 17; Lyon 171.7 (V106/R138) = Mazzini 1 = De Sartiges 53 (this coin); Calicó 321; BMCRE 18; BN 27 (Lugdunum); Cohen 1. (Image courtesy CNG) R2
AR denarius - RIC I, 18 Gaius (Caligula), with Germanicus. AD 37-41. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.04 g). Rome mint. Struck AD 37-38. C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, Laureate head of Gaius (Caligula) right / GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM, Bare head of Germanicus right. RIC I 18; BMCRE 19; RSC 2. (Image courtesy CNG) R2
AR denarius - RIC I, 19 No photo Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.62 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 37-38. C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, Laureate head right / SPQR / P P / OB C S in three lines; all within oak wreath. RIC I 28; RSC 21. (Image courtesy CNG) R3
AV quinarius  - RIC I, 20 No photo GAIUS (CALIGULA) 37-41 AD. AV quinarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 37-38 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, bare head of Gaius right / PM TR - POT COS, Victory, draped, seated on globe holding wreath in both hands. BMC 6. R3
AV aureus - RIC I, 21 GAIUS (CALIGULA), with GERMANICUS. 37-41 AD. AV Aureus (7.72 gm). Struck 40 AD. C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III, Laureate head of Caligula right / AGRIPINNA MAT C CAES AVG GERM, Draped bust of Agrippina right. C 5. BMC 22. RIC 21. Calicó 327. (Image courtesy Numismatica Ars Classica) R3
AR denarius - RIC I, 22 GAIUS (CALIGULA), with AGRIPPINA. 37-41 AD. AR Denarius (3.74 gm). Rome mint. Struck 40 AD. C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III, Laureate head of Caligula right / AGRIPINNA MAT C CAES AVG GERM, Draped bust of Agrippina right. RIC I 22; Trillmich type 4D (pl.1, 45); RSC 6. (Image courtesy CNG) R2
AV aureus - RIC I, 23 No image As the next coin (RIC 24) but in gold R3
AR denarius - RIC I, 24 Gaius (Caligula), with Divus Augustus. AD 37-41. AR Denarius (3.65 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 40. C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III, Laureate head of Caligula right / DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE, Radiate head of Augustus right. RIC I 24; RSC 7. (Image courtesy CNG) R3
AV aureus - RIC I, 25 GAIUS (CALIGULA), with GERMANICUS. 37-41 AD. AV Aureus (7.72 gm). Struck 40 AD. C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III, laureate head right / GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM, bare head of Germanicus right. RIC I 25; Cohen 6.  (Image courtesy CNG) R3
AR denarius - RIC I, 26 Gaius (Caligula), with Germanicus. AD 37-41. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.56 g, 4h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck 40 AD. C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III, laureate head right / GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM, bare head of Germanicus right. RIC I 26; RSC 5. (Image courtesy CNG) R3
AV aureus - RIC I, 27 Gaius (Caligula) Aureus, Rome  40, AV 7.74 g. C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III Laureate head r. / SPQR/PP/OBCS within oak wreath. C 20. BMC 29. RIC 27 (Rome). CBN 37. Calicó 329 (Image courtesy Numismatica Ars Classica) R3
AR denarius - RIC I, 28 Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.62 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 40. C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III, Laureate head right / SPQR / P P / OB C S in three lines; all within oak wreath. RIC I 28; RSC 21. (Image courtesy CNG) R3
AV quinarius - RIC I, 29 Gaius (Caligula). Quinarius, .74 g. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS, Laureate head r. / P M TR POT IIII, Victory seated r., holding wreath.. C 16; BMC 31; RIC 29; CBN 184; King 3c CBN 37; Calicó 329 (Image courtesy Numismatica Ars Classica) R3
Unlisted

AR denarius - RIC I, -

GAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD. AR Denarius (3.62 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck January 41 AD. C CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT IIII COS IIII, laureate head of Gaius (Caligula) right / S P Q R/P P/OB C S in three lines within oak wreath. RIC I -; RIC I (1st ed.) 7 = BMCRE 32 = RSC 23a; Lyon -; BN -; Cohen -. (Image courtesy CNG) ?
Unlisted

AR denarius - RIC I, -

Gaius (Caligula), with Germanicus. AD 37-41. AR Denarius (3.46 g, 6h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck January AD 41. C CAESAR AVG PONT TR POT IIII COS IIII, Laureate head of Gaius (Caligula) right / GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM, Bare head of Germanicus right. RIC I 30/26 (for obv./rev. type); Lyon 185/181 (for obv./rev. type); RSC -. (Image courtesy CNG) ?
AR denarius - RIC I, 30 GAIUS (CALIGULA), with DIVUS AUGUSTUS. 37-41 AD. AR Denarius (3.71 gm, 5h). Rome mint. Struck 41 AD.  C CAESAR AVG PONT TR POT IIII COS IIII, Laureate head of Gaius right / AGRIPINNA MAT C CAES AVG GERM, Radiate head of Augustus right; no stars. C 7. BMC p. 150 note †. RIC 30. CBN –. (Image courtesy Numismatica Ars Classica) R4
AR denarius - RIC I, 31 GAIUS (CALIGULA), with DIVUS AUGUSTUS. 37-41 AD. AR Denarius (3.71 gm, 5h). Rome mint. Struck 41 AD.  C CAESAR AVG PONT TR POT IIII COS IIII, Laureate head of Gaius right / DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE, Radiate head of Augustus right; no stars. RIC I 31; BMCRE -; RSC 8. (Image courtesy CNG) R4
(ii) Dated bronze coins
AE sestertius - RIC I, 32 Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Ć Sestertius (25.74 g, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 37-38. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laureate head left / ADLOCVT COH, Gaius standing left on daďs with camp chair behind, addressing five soldiers standing right, holding parazonia and shields; four aquilae behind. RIC I 32; BMCRE 33; BN 46; Cohen 1. (Image courtesy CNG) S
AE sestertius - RIC I, 33 Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Ć Sestertius (26.83 g, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 37-38. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laureate head left / AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, S C in exergue, Gaius' three sisters standing facing: Agrippina (as Securitas) leaning on column, holding cornucopia, and placing hand on Drusilla (as Concordia), holding patera and cornucopia; Julia (as Fortuna) holding rudder and cornucopia. RIC I 33; CNR XII, 56 (this coin); BMCRE 37; BN 49; Cohen 4. (Image courtesy CNG) R
AE dupondius - RIC I, 34 NERO and DRUSUS CAESAR, brothers of Gaius (Caligula). Died 31 and 33 AD. Ć Dupondius (15.71 gm). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), 37-38 AD. NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVSPON M TR POT around large S C. RIC I 34 (Gaius); MIR 3, 13-5; BMCRE 44 (Caligula); Cohen 1.(Image courtesy CNG) S
AE as - RIC I, 35 GERMANICUS, father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. Ć As (28mm, 10.67 gm). Rome mint. Struck under Caligula, 37/8 AD. GERMANICVS CAESAR. TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C. CAESAR. AVG. GERMANICVS PON M TR. POT around large S C. RIC I 35 (Gaius); BMCRE 49 (Caligula); BN 73 (Caligula); Cohen 1. (Image courtesy CNG) C
AE sestertius - RIC I, 36 Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Ć “Medallic” Sestertius (30.30 g, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 37-38. Pietas seated left, holding patera and resting arm on small draped figure standing facing on basis / Gaius standing left, holding patera over garlanded altar; victimarius holding bull for sacrifice and attendant holding a patera standing on either side; garlanded hexastyle temple of Divus Augustus in background; pediment decorated with sacrificial scene; quadriga and Victories as acroteria; statues of Romulus and Aeneas along roof line. RIC I 36 (Image courtesy CNG) R
AE sestertius - RIC I, 37 GAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD. Ć Sestertius (23.74 gm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck 37-38 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, Laureate head left / S P Q R/P P/OB CIVES/SERVATOS in four lines within oak wreath. RIC I 37; BMCRE 38; Cohen 24. (Image courtesy CNG) R
AE as - RIC I, 38 GAIUS CALIGULA. 37-41 AD. Ć As (11.21 gm). Struck 37/38 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left / VESTA, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC I 38; BMCRE 46; Cohen 27. (Image courtesy CNG) C
AE as - RIC I, 38 var Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Ć As (28mm, 11.30 g, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 37-38. Bare head left / Vesta seated left, holding patera and vertical scepter. RIC I 38 var. (transverse scepter).  (Image courtesy CNG) ?
AE quadrans - RIC I, 39 Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Ć Quadrans (18mm, 3.19 g). Rome mint. Struck AD 39. Legend around pileus between S C / Legend around R C C. RIC I 39; BMCRE 57; BN 98. (Image courtesy CNG) S
AE sestertius - RIC I, 40 Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Ć Sestertius (27.77g). Rome mint. Struck AD 39-40. C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRO.N. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P, laureate head left / ADLOCVT, Emperor on stage saluting the troops, COH in exergue. RIC 40; C.2. (Image courtesy Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger) R2
AE sestertius - RIC I, 41 No photo Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Ć Sestertius. Rome mint. Struck AD 39-40. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR P III P P, laureate head left / AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, S C in exergue, Gaius' three sisters standing facing: Agrippina (as Securitas) leaning on column, holding cornucopia, and placing hand on Drusilla (as Concordia), holding patera and cornucopia; Julia (as Fortuna) holding rudder and cornucopia. R4
AE dupondius - RIC I, 42 Nero & Drusus Caesar. Died AD 31 and 33, respectively. Ć Dupondius (15.64 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 39-40. NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right / C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. RIC I 42 (Gaius); BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡; BN -; Cohen -. (Image courtesy CNG) R3
AE as - RIC I, 43 GERMANICUS, father of Gaius (Caligula). Died 19 AD. Ć As (27mm, 9.84 gm). Rome mint. Struck under Caligula, 39-40 AD. Bare head left / Legend around large S C. RIC I 43 (Gaius); Cohen 4 var. (TR P IIII). (Image courtesy CNG) R2
AE sestertius - RIC I, 44 Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Ć Sestertius (28.40 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 39-40. C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRO.N. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P., PIETAS in exergue, Pietas seated left on stool, holding patera in extended right hand and resting left forearm on small draped figure standing facing on basis / DIVO AVG, S C across field, Gaius togate, standing left, holding patera in right hand over garlanded altar, raising hem of toga with left hand; victimarius holding bull for sacrifice and attendant holding a patera standing on either side; garlanded hexastyle temple of Divus Augustus in background; pediment decorated with sacrificial scene; quadriga and Victories as acroteria; statues of Romulus and Aeneas along roof line. RIC I 44; BMCRE p. 156, † (pl. 28, 9); BN 104; Cohen 10. (Image courtesy CNG) R
AE quadrans - RIC I, 45 CALIGULA. 37-41 AD. Ć Quadrans (16mm, 3.37 gm). Struck 39-40 AD. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG, Pileus between S C / PON M TR P III P P COS TERT, around R C C. RIC I 45; BMCRE 63; Cohen 6. (Image courtesy CNG) S
AE sestertius - RIC I, 46 GAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD. Ć Sestertius (27.55 gm). Struck 39-40 AD. Laureate head left / Legend in four lines within oak-wreath. RIC I 46; Cohen 25. (Image courtesy CNG) R2
AE as - RIC I, 47 GAIUS CALIGULA. 37-41 AD. Ć As (11.68 gm). Struck 39/40 AD. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P III P P  bare head left / VESTA, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. BMC 156, 59; RIC 47 (Image courtesy Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A.) S
AE sestertius - RIC I, 48 Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Ć Sestertius (25.94 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 40-41. Laureate head left / ADLOCVT COH, Gaius standing left on daďs with camp chair behind, addressing five soldiers standing right, holding parazonia and shields; four aquilae behind. RIC I 48. (Image courtesy CNG) S
AE dupondius - RIC I, 49 NERO and DRUSUS CAESARS. Died 31 and 33 AD respectively. Ć Dupondius (28mm, 11.93 gm). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), 40-41 AD. NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVSPON M TR P IIII P P around large S C. RIC I 49 (Gaius); Cohen 1.  (Image courtesy CNG) R2
AE as - RIC I, 50 GERMANICUS, father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. Ć As (28mm, 10.89 gm). Rome mint. Struck under Caligula, 40/1 AD. GERMANICVS. CAESAR. TI. AVG. F. DIVI. AVG N, bare head of Germanicus left / C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. IIII. P. P. around large S C. RIC I 50 (Gaius); BMCRE 74 (Caligula); Cohen 4 (Gaius). (Image courtesy CNG) S
AE sestertius - RIC I, 51 GAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD. Ć Sestertius (25.56 gm). Rome mint. Struck 40-41 AD. Pietas seated left, holding patera and resting arm on small draped figure standing facing on basis / Gaius standing left, holding patera over garlanded altar; one attendant holding bull for sacrifice, the other holding a patera on either side; garlanded hexastyle temple of Divus Augustus in background, pediment decorated with sacrificial scene, quadriga and Victories as acroteria, statues of Romulus and Aeneas along roof line. RIC I 51; MIR 3, 37-4; BMCRE 69; Cohen 11. (Image courtesy CNG) R
AE quadrans - RIC I, 52 GAIUS CALIGULA. 37-41 AD. Ć Quadrans (2.63 gm). Struck 40-41 AD. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG, S-C flanking small pileus / PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT, legend around large RCC. RIC I 52; BMCRE 64; Cohen 7. (Image courtesy CNG) C
AE quadrans - RIC I, - GAIUS CALIGULA. 37-41 AD. AE Quadrans (17mm, 2.86 gm). Rome mint. Struck 1-24 January 41 AD. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG, pileus between S C / PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT, legend around R C C. RIC I (first ed.) 41; Cohen 8. (Image courtesy CNG) ?
AE sestertius - RIC I, 53 GAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD. Ć Sestertius (34mm, 26.34 gm). Rome mint. Struck 40-41 AD. Bare head left / Legend in four lines within oak wreath. RIC I 53; Cohen 26. Fine, brown and green patina. (Image courtesy CNG) R2
AE as - RIC I, 54 GAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD. Ć As (29mm, 10.56 g, 7h). Rome mint. Struck 40-41 AD. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, bare head left / VESTA, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC I 54; BMCRE 72; BN 121; Cohen 29. (Image courtesy CNG) R
(iii) Undated silver and gold
AE sestertius - RIC I, 55 AGRIPPINA SENIOR, wife of Germanicus, mother of Gaius (Caligula). Died 33 AD. Sestertius 37-41, Ć 30.51 g. AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI Draped bust r., hair falling in long plait behind. Rev. S P Q R / MEMORIAE / AGRIPPINAE Carpentum with ornamented side drawn l. by two mules; the cover supported at the corners by standing figures. C 1. BMC Gaius 85. CBN Gaius 128. RIC Gaius 55. Kent-Hirmer pl. 47, 164. (Image courtesy Numismatica Ars Classica) C
AE dupondius - RIC I, 56 Divus Augustus. Died 14 AD. Ć Dupondius (16.38 gm). Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD. DIVVS. AVGVSTVS, S-C across field, radiate head of Divus Augustus left / CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ. ORDIN. P. Q. R., Caligula(?), laureate and togate, seated left on curule chair, holding branch in right hand. RIC I 56 (Gaius); BMCRE 88 (Caligula); Cohen 87. (Image courtesy CNG) C
AE dupondius - RIC I, 57 GERMANICUS, father of Gaius (Caligula), brother of Claudius. Died 19 AD. Ć Dupondius (15.51 gm). Rome mint. Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD. Germanicus in ornamented quadriga right / Germanicus advancing left, raising hand and holding legionary eagle. RIC I 57 (Gaius); MIR 3 -; BMCRE 94 (Caligula); Cohen 7. (Image courtesy CNG) C
AE as - RIC I, 58 AGRIPPA. Died 12 BC. Ć As (28mm, 11.15 g, 7h). Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD. M•AGRIPPA•L•F•COS•III, head of Agrippa left wearing rostral crown / S-C across field, nude Poseidon holding dolphin and trident. RIC I 58 (Gaius); BMCRE 161 (Tiberius); BN 77 (Caligula); Cohen 3. (Image courtesy CNG) C
Mint of Caesarea in Cappadocia
AR didrachm - RIC I, 59 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. AR didrachm. 7.48 grams. GERMANICVS · CAESAR - TI · AVG · F · COS · II: Bare head of Germanicus right / GERMANICVS / ARTAXIAS , Germanicus holding spear and placing a tiara on Artaxias; head. RIC 59 (Caligula). C. 6 var. BMC 104 (Caligula). RPC 3629. Sydenham 49. (Image courtesy Numismatik Lanz München) R2
AR drachm - RIC I, 60 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Germanicus and Divus Augustus. Circa AD 33/34. AR Drachm (17mm, 3.36 g). GERMANICVS C-ES TI AVGV COS II P[M(?)], Bare head of Germanicus right / DIVVS AVG-VSTVS, Radiate head of Augustus left. RIC I 60 (Caligula).  (Image courtesy CNG) R
AR drachm - RIC I, 61 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Germanicus and Divus Augustus. Circa AD 33/34. AR Drachm (17mm, 3.36 g). GERMANICVS C-ES TI AVG F COS II P[M(?)], Bare head of Germanicus right / DIVVS - AVGVSTVS, Radiate head of Augustus left. RIC I 61 (Caligula).(Image courtesy Numismatik Lanz München) R
Unlisted

AR drachm - RIC I, 61 var.

CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Divus Augustus and Germanicus. Died 14 and 19 AD respectively. AR Drachm (3.63 g, 1h). Struck 33/4 or 37/8 AD. DIVVS AVGV-STVS, radiate head of Augustus left / GERMANICVS C-ES TI AVGV COS II PM, bare head of Germanicus right, wearing beard. cf. RPC I 3623a; RIC I 61 (Gaius) var. (obv legend break). (Image courtesy CNG) ?
Unlisted

AR drachm - RIC I, 61 var.

CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Divus Augustus and Germanicus. Died 14 and 19 AD respectively. AR Drachm (3.63 g, 1h). Struck 33/4 or 37/8 AD. DIVVS AVGVS-TVS, radiate head of Augustus left / GERMANICVS C-ES TI AVGV COS II P[M(?)], bare head of Germanicus right, wearing beard. RPC I 3623a; cf. Sydenham, Caesarea 50/51 (obv./rev.); RIC I 61 (Gaius) var. (obv legend break). (Image courtesy CNG) ?
AR drachm - RIC I, 62 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Germanicus and Divus Augustus. AR Drachm (3.73 gm). GERMANICVS CAES TI AVG F COS II P M, Bare head of Germanicus right / DIVVS- AVGVSTVS, Radiate head of Augustus left. RPC I 3623b; Sydenham, Caesarea 52; RIC I 62 (Caligula). (Image courtesy CNG) R4
AR drachm - RIC I, 63 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Germanicus. AR Drachm (3.79 gm). C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS, Bare head of Germanicus right / Simpulum and littust. C 12; BMC 102; RIC 63; CBN 161. (Image courtesy Numismatica Ars Classica) R2